com.ibm.icu.text
Class MessageFormat

java.lang.Object
  extended by java.text.Format
      extended by com.ibm.icu.text.UFormat
          extended by com.ibm.icu.text.MessageFormat
All Implemented Interfaces:
Serializable, Cloneable

public class MessageFormat
extends UFormat

[icu enhancement] ICU's replacement for java.text.MessageFormat. Methods, fields, and other functionality specific to ICU are labeled '[icu]'.

MessageFormat prepares strings for display to users, with optional arguments (variables/placeholders). The arguments can occur in any order, which is necessary for translation into languages with different grammars.

A MessageFormat is constructed from a pattern string with arguments in {curly braces} which will be replaced by formatted values.

MessageFormat differs from the other Format classes in that you create a MessageFormat object with one of its constructors (not with a getInstance style factory method). Factory methods aren't necessary because MessageFormat itself doesn't implement locale-specific behavior. Any locale-specific behavior is defined by the pattern that you provide and the subformats used for inserted arguments.

Arguments can be named (using identifiers) or numbered (using small ASCII-digit integers). Some of the API methods work only with argument numbers and throw an exception if the pattern has named arguments (see usesNamedArguments()).

An argument might not specify any format type. In this case, a Number value is formatted with a default (for the locale) NumberFormat, a Date value is formatted with a default (for the locale) DateFormat, and for any other value its toString() value is used.

An argument might specify a "simple" type for which the specified Format object is created, cached and used.

An argument might have a "complex" type with nested MessageFormat sub-patterns. During formatting, one of these sub-messages is selected according to the argument value and recursively formatted.

After construction, a custom Format object can be set for a top-level argument, overriding the default formatting and parsing behavior for that argument. However, custom formatting can be achieved more simply by writing a typeless argument in the pattern string and supplying it with a preformatted string value.

When formatting, MessageFormat takes a collection of argument values and writes an output string. The argument values may be passed as an array (when the pattern contains only numbered arguments) or as a Map (which works for both named and numbered arguments).

Each argument is matched with one of the input values by array index or map key and formatted according to its pattern specification (or using a custom Format object if one was set). A numbered pattern argument is matched with a map key that contains that number as an ASCII-decimal-digit string (without leading zero).

Patterns and Their Interpretation

MessageFormat uses patterns of the following form:
 message = messageText (argument messageText)*
 argument = noneArg | simpleArg | complexArg
 complexArg = choiceArg | pluralArg | selectArg

 noneArg = '{' argNameOrNumber '}'
 simpleArg = '{' argNameOrNumber ',' argType [',' argStyle] '}'
 choiceArg = '{' argNameOrNumber ',' "choice" ',' choiceStyle '}'
 pluralArg = '{' argNameOrNumber ',' "plural" ',' pluralStyle '}'
 selectArg = '{' argNameOrNumber ',' "select" ',' selectStyle '}'

 choiceStyle: see ChoiceFormat
 pluralStyle: see PluralFormat
 selectStyle: see SelectFormat

 argNameOrNumber = argName | argNumber
 argName = [^[[:Pattern_Syntax:][:Pattern_White_Space:]]]+
 argNumber = '0' | ('1'..'9' ('0'..'9')*)

 argType = "number" | "date" | "time" | "spellout" | "ordinal" | "duration"
 argStyle = "short" | "medium" | "long" | "full" | "integer" | "currency" | "percent" | argStyleText
 

Recommendation: Use the real apostrophe (single quote) character ’ for human-readable text, and use the ASCII apostrophe (' ' ) only in program syntax, like quoting in MessageFormat. See the annotations for U+0027 Apostrophe in The Unicode Standard.

The choice argument type is deprecated. Use plural arguments for proper plural selection, and select arguments for simple selection among a fixed set of choices.

The argType and argStyle values are used to create a Format instance for the format element. The following table shows how the values map to Format instances. Combinations not shown in the table are illegal. Any argStyleText must be a valid pattern string for the Format subclass used.

argType argStyle resulting Format object
(none) null
number (none) NumberFormat.getInstance(getLocale())
integer NumberFormat.getIntegerInstance(getLocale())
currency NumberFormat.getCurrencyInstance(getLocale())
percent NumberFormat.getPercentInstance(getLocale())
argStyleText new DecimalFormat(argStyleText, new DecimalFormatSymbols(getLocale()))
date (none) DateFormat.getDateInstance(DateFormat.DEFAULT, getLocale())
short DateFormat.getDateInstance(DateFormat.SHORT, getLocale())
medium DateFormat.getDateInstance(DateFormat.DEFAULT, getLocale())
long DateFormat.getDateInstance(DateFormat.LONG, getLocale())
full DateFormat.getDateInstance(DateFormat.FULL, getLocale())
argStyleText new SimpleDateFormat(argStyleText, getLocale())
time (none) DateFormat.getTimeInstance(DateFormat.DEFAULT, getLocale())
short DateFormat.getTimeInstance(DateFormat.SHORT, getLocale())
medium DateFormat.getTimeInstance(DateFormat.DEFAULT, getLocale())
long DateFormat.getTimeInstance(DateFormat.LONG, getLocale())
full DateFormat.getTimeInstance(DateFormat.FULL, getLocale())
argStyleText new SimpleDateFormat(argStyleText, getLocale())
spellout argStyleText (optional) new RuleBasedNumberFormat(getLocale(), RuleBasedNumberFormat.SPELLOUT)
    .setDefaultRuleset(argStyleText);
ordinal argStyleText (optional) new RuleBasedNumberFormat(getLocale(), RuleBasedNumberFormat.ORDINAL)
    .setDefaultRuleset(argStyleText);
duration argStyleText (optional) new RuleBasedNumberFormat(getLocale(), RuleBasedNumberFormat.DURATION)
    .setDefaultRuleset(argStyleText);

Differences from java.text.MessageFormat

The ICU MessageFormat supports both named and numbered arguments, while the JDK MessageFormat only supports numbered arguments. Named arguments make patterns more readable.

ICU implements a more user-friendly apostrophe quoting syntax. In message text, an apostrophe only begins quoting literal text if it immediately precedes a syntax character (mostly {curly braces}).
In the JDK MessageFormat, an apostrophe always begins quoting, which requires common text like "don't" and "aujourd'hui" to be written with doubled apostrophes like "don''t" and "aujourd''hui". For more details see MessagePattern.ApostropheMode.

ICU does not create a ChoiceFormat object for a choiceArg, pluralArg or selectArg but rather handles such arguments itself. The JDK MessageFormat does create and use a ChoiceFormat object (new ChoiceFormat(argStyleText)). The JDK does not support plural and select arguments at all.

Usage Information

Here are some examples of usage:

 Object[] arguments = {
     7,
     new Date(System.currentTimeMillis()),
     "a disturbance in the Force"
 };

 String result = MessageFormat.format(
     "At {1,time} on {1,date}, there was {2} on planet {0,number,integer}.",
     arguments);

 output: At 12:30 PM on Jul 3, 2053, there was a disturbance
           in the Force on planet 7.

 
Typically, the message format will come from resources, and the arguments will be dynamically set at runtime.

Example 2:

 Object[] testArgs = { 3, "MyDisk" };

 MessageFormat form = new MessageFormat(
     "The disk \"{1}\" contains {0} file(s).");

 System.out.println(form.format(testArgs));

 // output, with different testArgs
 output: The disk "MyDisk" contains 0 file(s).
 output: The disk "MyDisk" contains 1 file(s).
 output: The disk "MyDisk" contains 1,273 file(s).
 

For messages that include plural forms, you can use a plural argument:

 MessageFormat msgFmt = new MessageFormat(
     "{num_files, plural, " +
     "=0{There are no files on disk \"{disk_name}\".}" +
     "=1{There is one file on disk \"{disk_name}\".}" +
     "other{There are # files on disk \"{disk_name}\".}}",
     ULocale.ENGLISH);
 Map args = new HashMap();
 args.put("num_files", 0);
 args.put("disk_name", "MyDisk");
 System.out.println(msgFmt.format(args));
 args.put("num_files", 3);
 System.out.println(msgFmt.format(args));
 
 output:
 There are no files on disk "MyDisk".
 There are 3 files on "MyDisk".
 
See PluralFormat and PluralRules for details.

Synchronization

MessageFormats are not synchronized. It is recommended to create separate format instances for each thread. If multiple threads access a format concurrently, it must be synchronized externally.

Author:
Mark Davis, Markus Scherer
See Also:
Locale, Format, NumberFormat, DecimalFormat, ChoiceFormat, PluralFormat, SelectFormat, Serialized Form
Status:
Stable ICU 3.0.

Nested Class Summary
static class MessageFormat.Field
          Defines constants that are used as attribute keys in the AttributedCharacterIterator returned from MessageFormat.formatToCharacterIterator.
 
Constructor Summary
MessageFormat(String pattern)
          Constructs a MessageFormat for the default FORMAT locale and the specified pattern.
MessageFormat(String pattern, Locale locale)
          Constructs a MessageFormat for the specified locale and pattern.
MessageFormat(String pattern, ULocale locale)
          Constructs a MessageFormat for the specified locale and pattern.
 
Method Summary
 void applyPattern(String pttrn)
          Sets the pattern used by this message format.
 void applyPattern(String pattern, MessagePattern.ApostropheMode aposMode)
          [icu] Sets the ApostropheMode and the pattern used by this message format.
static String autoQuoteApostrophe(String pattern)
          [icu] Converts an 'apostrophe-friendly' pattern into a standard pattern.
 Object clone()
          
 boolean equals(Object obj)
          
 StringBuffer format(Map<String,Object> arguments, StringBuffer result, FieldPosition pos)
          Formats a map of objects and appends the MessageFormat's pattern, with arguments replaced by the formatted objects, to the provided StringBuffer.
 StringBuffer format(Object[] arguments, StringBuffer result, FieldPosition pos)
          Formats an array of objects and appends the MessageFormat's pattern, with arguments replaced by the formatted objects, to the provided StringBuffer.
 StringBuffer format(Object arguments, StringBuffer result, FieldPosition pos)
          Formats a map or array of objects and appends the MessageFormat's pattern, with format elements replaced by the formatted objects, to the provided StringBuffer.
static String format(String pattern, Map<String,Object> arguments)
          Creates a MessageFormat with the given pattern and uses it to format the given arguments.
static String format(String pattern, Object... arguments)
          Creates a MessageFormat with the given pattern and uses it to format the given arguments.
 AttributedCharacterIterator formatToCharacterIterator(Object arguments)
          Formats an array of objects and inserts them into the MessageFormat's pattern, producing an AttributedCharacterIterator.
 MessagePattern.ApostropheMode getApostropheMode()
          [icu]
 Set<String> getArgumentNames()
          [icu] Returns the top-level argument names.
 Format getFormatByArgumentName(String argumentName)
          [icu] Returns the first top-level format associated with the given argument name.
 Format[] getFormats()
          Returns the Format objects used for the format elements in the previously set pattern string.
 Format[] getFormatsByArgumentIndex()
          Returns the Format objects used for the values passed into format methods or returned from parse methods.
 Locale getLocale()
          Returns the locale that's used when creating or comparing subformats.
 ULocale getULocale()
          [icu] Returns the locale that's used when creating argument Format objects.
 int hashCode()
          
 Object[] parse(String source)
          Parses text from the beginning of the given string to produce an object array.
 Object[] parse(String source, ParsePosition pos)
          Parses the string.
 Object parseObject(String source, ParsePosition pos)
          Parses text from a string to produce an object array or Map.
 Map<String,Object> parseToMap(String source)
          [icu] Parses text from the beginning of the given string to produce a map from argument to values.
 Map<String,Object> parseToMap(String source, ParsePosition pos)
          [icu] Parses the string, returning the results in a Map.
 void setFormat(int formatElementIndex, Format newFormat)
          Sets the Format object to use for the format element with the given format element index within the previously set pattern string.
 void setFormatByArgumentIndex(int argumentIndex, Format newFormat)
          Sets the Format object to use for the format elements within the previously set pattern string that use the given argument index.
 void setFormatByArgumentName(String argumentName, Format newFormat)
          [icu] Sets the Format object to use for the format elements within the previously set pattern string that use the given argument name.
 void setFormats(Format[] newFormats)
          Sets the Format objects to use for the format elements in the previously set pattern string.
 void setFormatsByArgumentIndex(Format[] newFormats)
          Sets the Format objects to use for the values passed into format methods or returned from parse methods.
 void setFormatsByArgumentName(Map<String,Format> newFormats)
          [icu] Sets the Format objects to use for the values passed into format methods or returned from parse methods.
 void setLocale(Locale locale)
          Sets the locale to be used for creating argument Format objects.
 void setLocale(ULocale locale)
          Sets the locale to be used for creating argument Format objects.
 String toPattern()
          Returns the applied pattern string.
 boolean usesNamedArguments()
          [icu] Returns true if this MessageFormat uses named arguments, and false otherwise.
 
Methods inherited from class com.ibm.icu.text.UFormat
getLocale
 
Methods inherited from class java.text.Format
format, parseObject
 
Methods inherited from class java.lang.Object
finalize, getClass, notify, notifyAll, toString, wait, wait, wait
 

Constructor Detail

MessageFormat

public MessageFormat(String pattern)
Constructs a MessageFormat for the default FORMAT locale and the specified pattern. Sets the locale and calls applyPattern(pattern).

Parameters:
pattern - the pattern for this message format
Throws:
IllegalArgumentException - if the pattern is invalid
See Also:
ULocale.Category.FORMAT
Status:
Stable ICU 3.0.

MessageFormat

public MessageFormat(String pattern,
                     Locale locale)
Constructs a MessageFormat for the specified locale and pattern. Sets the locale and calls applyPattern(pattern).

Parameters:
pattern - the pattern for this message format
locale - the locale for this message format
Throws:
IllegalArgumentException - if the pattern is invalid
Status:
Stable ICU 3.0.

MessageFormat

public MessageFormat(String pattern,
                     ULocale locale)
Constructs a MessageFormat for the specified locale and pattern. Sets the locale and calls applyPattern(pattern).

Parameters:
pattern - the pattern for this message format
locale - the locale for this message format
Throws:
IllegalArgumentException - if the pattern is invalid
Status:
Stable ICU 3.2.
Method Detail

setLocale

public void setLocale(Locale locale)
Sets the locale to be used for creating argument Format objects. This affects subsequent calls to the applyPattern method as well as to the format and formatToCharacterIterator methods.

Parameters:
locale - the locale to be used when creating or comparing subformats
Status:
Stable ICU 3.0.

setLocale

public void setLocale(ULocale locale)
Sets the locale to be used for creating argument Format objects. This affects subsequent calls to the applyPattern method as well as to the format and formatToCharacterIterator methods.

Parameters:
locale - the locale to be used when creating or comparing subformats
Status:
Stable ICU 3.2.

getLocale

public Locale getLocale()
Returns the locale that's used when creating or comparing subformats.

Returns:
the locale used when creating or comparing subformats
Status:
Stable ICU 3.0.

getULocale

public ULocale getULocale()
[icu] Returns the locale that's used when creating argument Format objects.

Returns:
the locale used when creating or comparing subformats
Status:
Stable ICU 3.2.

applyPattern

public void applyPattern(String pttrn)
Sets the pattern used by this message format. Parses the pattern and caches Format objects for simple argument types. Patterns and their interpretation are specified in the class description.

Parameters:
pttrn - the pattern for this message format
Throws:
IllegalArgumentException - if the pattern is invalid
Status:
Stable ICU 3.0.

applyPattern

public void applyPattern(String pattern,
                         MessagePattern.ApostropheMode aposMode)
[icu] Sets the ApostropheMode and the pattern used by this message format. Parses the pattern and caches Format objects for simple argument types. Patterns and their interpretation are specified in the class description.

This method is best used only once on a given object to avoid confusion about the mode, and after constructing the object with an empty pattern string to minimize overhead.

Parameters:
pattern - the pattern for this message format
aposMode - the new ApostropheMode
Throws:
IllegalArgumentException - if the pattern is invalid
See Also:
MessagePattern.ApostropheMode
Status:
Stable ICU 4.8.

getApostropheMode

public MessagePattern.ApostropheMode getApostropheMode()
[icu]

Returns:
this instance's ApostropheMode.
Status:
Stable ICU 4.8.

toPattern

public String toPattern()
Returns the applied pattern string.

Returns:
the pattern string
Throws:
IllegalStateException - after custom Format objects have been set via setFormat() or similar APIs
Status:
Stable ICU 3.0.

setFormatsByArgumentIndex

public void setFormatsByArgumentIndex(Format[] newFormats)
Sets the Format objects to use for the values passed into format methods or returned from parse methods. The indices of elements in newFormats correspond to the argument indices used in the previously set pattern string. The order of formats in newFormats thus corresponds to the order of elements in the arguments array passed to the format methods or the result array returned by the parse methods.

If an argument index is used for more than one format element in the pattern string, then the corresponding new format is used for all such format elements. If an argument index is not used for any format element in the pattern string, then the corresponding new format is ignored. If fewer formats are provided than needed, then only the formats for argument indices less than newFormats.length are replaced. This method is only supported if the format does not use named arguments, otherwise an IllegalArgumentException is thrown.

Parameters:
newFormats - the new formats to use
Throws:
NullPointerException - if newFormats is null
IllegalArgumentException - if this formatter uses named arguments
Status:
Stable ICU 3.0.

setFormatsByArgumentName

public void setFormatsByArgumentName(Map<String,Format> newFormats)
[icu] Sets the Format objects to use for the values passed into format methods or returned from parse methods. The keys in newFormats are the argument names in the previously set pattern string, and the values are the formats.

Only argument names from the pattern string are considered. Extra keys in newFormats that do not correspond to an argument name are ignored. Similarly, if there is no format in newFormats for an argument name, the formatter for that argument remains unchanged.

This may be called on formats that do not use named arguments. In this case the map will be queried for key Strings that represent argument indices, e.g. "0", "1", "2" etc.

Parameters:
newFormats - a map from String to Format providing new formats for named arguments.
Status:
Stable ICU 3.8.

setFormats

public void setFormats(Format[] newFormats)
Sets the Format objects to use for the format elements in the previously set pattern string. The order of formats in newFormats corresponds to the order of format elements in the pattern string.

If more formats are provided than needed by the pattern string, the remaining ones are ignored. If fewer formats are provided than needed, then only the first newFormats.length formats are replaced.

Since the order of format elements in a pattern string often changes during localization, it is generally better to use the setFormatsByArgumentIndex method, which assumes an order of formats corresponding to the order of elements in the arguments array passed to the format methods or the result array returned by the parse methods.

Parameters:
newFormats - the new formats to use
Throws:
NullPointerException - if newFormats is null
Status:
Stable ICU 3.0.

setFormatByArgumentIndex

public void setFormatByArgumentIndex(int argumentIndex,
                                     Format newFormat)
Sets the Format object to use for the format elements within the previously set pattern string that use the given argument index. The argument index is part of the format element definition and represents an index into the arguments array passed to the format methods or the result array returned by the parse methods.

If the argument index is used for more than one format element in the pattern string, then the new format is used for all such format elements. If the argument index is not used for any format element in the pattern string, then the new format is ignored. This method is only supported when exclusively numbers are used for argument names. Otherwise an IllegalArgumentException is thrown.

Parameters:
argumentIndex - the argument index for which to use the new format
newFormat - the new format to use
Throws:
IllegalArgumentException - if this format uses named arguments
Status:
Stable ICU 3.0.

setFormatByArgumentName

public void setFormatByArgumentName(String argumentName,
                                    Format newFormat)
[icu] Sets the Format object to use for the format elements within the previously set pattern string that use the given argument name.

If the argument name is used for more than one format element in the pattern string, then the new format is used for all such format elements. If the argument name is not used for any format element in the pattern string, then the new format is ignored.

This API may be used on formats that do not use named arguments. In this case argumentName should be a String that names an argument index, e.g. "0", "1", "2"... etc. If it does not name a valid index, the format will be ignored. No error is thrown.

Parameters:
argumentName - the name of the argument to change
newFormat - the new format to use
Status:
Stable ICU 3.8.

setFormat

public void setFormat(int formatElementIndex,
                      Format newFormat)
Sets the Format object to use for the format element with the given format element index within the previously set pattern string. The format element index is the zero-based number of the format element counting from the start of the pattern string.

Since the order of format elements in a pattern string often changes during localization, it is generally better to use the setFormatByArgumentIndex method, which accesses format elements based on the argument index they specify.

Parameters:
formatElementIndex - the index of a format element within the pattern
newFormat - the format to use for the specified format element
Throws:
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException - if formatElementIndex is equal to or larger than the number of format elements in the pattern string
Status:
Stable ICU 3.0.

getFormatsByArgumentIndex

public Format[] getFormatsByArgumentIndex()
Returns the Format objects used for the values passed into format methods or returned from parse methods. The indices of elements in the returned array correspond to the argument indices used in the previously set pattern string. The order of formats in the returned array thus corresponds to the order of elements in the arguments array passed to the format methods or the result array returned by the parse methods.

If an argument index is used for more than one format element in the pattern string, then the format used for the last such format element is returned in the array. If an argument index is not used for any format element in the pattern string, then null is returned in the array. This method is only supported when exclusively numbers are used for argument names. Otherwise an IllegalArgumentException is thrown.

Returns:
the formats used for the arguments within the pattern
Throws:
IllegalArgumentException - if this format uses named arguments
Status:
Stable ICU 3.0.

getFormats

public Format[] getFormats()
Returns the Format objects used for the format elements in the previously set pattern string. The order of formats in the returned array corresponds to the order of format elements in the pattern string.

Since the order of format elements in a pattern string often changes during localization, it's generally better to use the getFormatsByArgumentIndex() method, which assumes an order of formats corresponding to the order of elements in the arguments array passed to the format methods or the result array returned by the parse methods. This method is only supported when exclusively numbers are used for argument names. Otherwise an IllegalArgumentException is thrown.

Returns:
the formats used for the format elements in the pattern
Throws:
IllegalArgumentException - if this format uses named arguments
Status:
Stable ICU 3.0.

getArgumentNames

public Set<String> getArgumentNames()
[icu] Returns the top-level argument names. For more details, see setFormatByArgumentName(String, Format).

Returns:
a Set of argument names
Status:
Stable ICU 4.8.

getFormatByArgumentName

public Format getFormatByArgumentName(String argumentName)
[icu] Returns the first top-level format associated with the given argument name. For more details, see setFormatByArgumentName(String, Format).

Parameters:
argumentName - The name of the desired argument.
Returns:
the Format associated with the name, or null if there isn't one.
Status:
Stable ICU 4.8.

format

public final StringBuffer format(Object[] arguments,
                                 StringBuffer result,
                                 FieldPosition pos)
Formats an array of objects and appends the MessageFormat's pattern, with arguments replaced by the formatted objects, to the provided StringBuffer.

The text substituted for the individual format elements is derived from the current subformat of the format element and the arguments element at the format element's argument index as indicated by the first matching line of the following table. An argument is unavailable if arguments is null or has fewer than argumentIndex+1 elements. When an argument is unavailable no substitution is performed.

argType or Format value object Formatted Text
any unavailable "{" + argNameOrNumber + "}"
any null "null"
custom Format != null any customFormat.format(argument)
noneArg, or custom Format == null instanceof Number NumberFormat.getInstance(getLocale()).format(argument)
noneArg, or custom Format == null instanceof Date DateFormat.getDateTimeInstance(DateFormat.SHORT, DateFormat.SHORT, getLocale()).format(argument)
noneArg, or custom Format == null instanceof String argument
noneArg, or custom Format == null any argument.toString()
complexArg any result of recursive formatting of a selected sub-message

If pos is non-null, and refers to Field.ARGUMENT, the location of the first formatted string will be returned. This method is only supported when the format does not use named arguments, otherwise an IllegalArgumentException is thrown.

Parameters:
arguments - an array of objects to be formatted and substituted.
result - where text is appended.
pos - On input: an alignment field, if desired. On output: the offsets of the alignment field.
Throws:
IllegalArgumentException - if a value in the arguments array is not of the type expected by the corresponding argument or custom Format object.
IllegalArgumentException - if this format uses named arguments
Status:
Stable ICU 3.0.

format

public final StringBuffer format(Map<String,Object> arguments,
                                 StringBuffer result,
                                 FieldPosition pos)
Formats a map of objects and appends the MessageFormat's pattern, with arguments replaced by the formatted objects, to the provided StringBuffer.

The text substituted for the individual format elements is derived from the current subformat of the format element and the arguments value corresopnding to the format element's argument name.

A numbered pattern argument is matched with a map key that contains that number as an ASCII-decimal-digit string (without leading zero).

An argument is unavailable if arguments is null or does not have a value corresponding to an argument name in the pattern. When an argument is unavailable no substitution is performed.

Parameters:
arguments - a map of objects to be formatted and substituted.
result - where text is appended.
pos - On input: an alignment field, if desired. On output: the offsets of the alignment field.
Returns:
the passed-in StringBuffer
Throws:
IllegalArgumentException - if a value in the arguments array is not of the type expected by the corresponding argument or custom Format object.
Status:
Stable ICU 3.8.

format

public static String format(String pattern,
                            Object... arguments)
Creates a MessageFormat with the given pattern and uses it to format the given arguments. This is equivalent to
(new MessageFormat(pattern)).format(arguments, new StringBuffer(), null).toString()

Throws:
IllegalArgumentException - if the pattern is invalid
IllegalArgumentException - if a value in the arguments array is not of the type expected by the corresponding argument or custom Format object.
IllegalArgumentException - if this format uses named arguments
Status:
Stable ICU 3.0.

format

public static String format(String pattern,
                            Map<String,Object> arguments)
Creates a MessageFormat with the given pattern and uses it to format the given arguments. The pattern must identifyarguments by name instead of by number.

Throws:
IllegalArgumentException - if the pattern is invalid
IllegalArgumentException - if a value in the arguments array is not of the type expected by the corresponding argument or custom Format object.
See Also:
format(Map, StringBuffer, FieldPosition), format(String, Object[])
Status:
Stable ICU 3.8.

usesNamedArguments

public boolean usesNamedArguments()
[icu] Returns true if this MessageFormat uses named arguments, and false otherwise. See class description.

Returns:
true if named arguments are used.
Status:
Stable ICU 3.8.

format

public final StringBuffer format(Object arguments,
                                 StringBuffer result,
                                 FieldPosition pos)
Formats a map or array of objects and appends the MessageFormat's pattern, with format elements replaced by the formatted objects, to the provided StringBuffer. This is equivalent to either of
format((Object[]) arguments, result, pos) format((Map) arguments, result, pos)
A map must be provided if this format uses named arguments, otherwise an IllegalArgumentException will be thrown.

Specified by:
format in class Format
Parameters:
arguments - a map or array of objects to be formatted
result - where text is appended
pos - On input: an alignment field, if desired On output: the offsets of the alignment field
Throws:
IllegalArgumentException - if an argument in arguments is not of the type expected by the format element(s) that use it
IllegalArgumentException - if arguments is an array of Object and this format uses named arguments
Status:
Stable ICU 3.0.

formatToCharacterIterator

public AttributedCharacterIterator formatToCharacterIterator(Object arguments)
Formats an array of objects and inserts them into the MessageFormat's pattern, producing an AttributedCharacterIterator. You can use the returned AttributedCharacterIterator to build the resulting String, as well as to determine information about the resulting String.

The text of the returned AttributedCharacterIterator is the same that would be returned by

format(arguments, new StringBuffer(), null).toString()

In addition, the AttributedCharacterIterator contains at least attributes indicating where text was generated from an argument in the arguments array. The keys of these attributes are of type MessageFormat.Field, their values are Integer objects indicating the index in the arguments array of the argument from which the text was generated.

The attributes/value from the underlying Format instances that MessageFormat uses will also be placed in the resulting AttributedCharacterIterator. This allows you to not only find where an argument is placed in the resulting String, but also which fields it contains in turn.

Overrides:
formatToCharacterIterator in class Format
Parameters:
arguments - an array of objects to be formatted and substituted.
Returns:
AttributedCharacterIterator describing the formatted value.
Throws:
NullPointerException - if arguments is null.
IllegalArgumentException - if a value in the arguments array is not of the type expected by the corresponding argument or custom Format object.
Status:
Stable ICU 3.8.

parse

public Object[] parse(String source,
                      ParsePosition pos)
Parses the string.

Caveats: The parse may fail in a number of circumstances. For example:

  • If one of the arguments does not occur in the pattern.
  • If the format of an argument loses information, such as with a choice format where a large number formats to "many".
  • Does not yet handle recursion (where the substituted strings contain {n} references.)
  • Will not always find a match (or the correct match) if some part of the parse is ambiguous. For example, if the pattern "{1},{2}" is used with the string arguments {"a,b", "c"}, it will format as "a,b,c". When the result is parsed, it will return {"a", "b,c"}.
  • If a single argument is parsed more than once in the string, then the later parse wins.
When the parse fails, use ParsePosition.getErrorIndex() to find out where in the string did the parsing failed. The returned error index is the starting offset of the sub-patterns that the string is comparing with. For example, if the parsing string "AAA {0} BBB" is comparing against the pattern "AAD {0} BBB", the error index is 0. When an error occurs, the call to this method will return null. If the source is null, return an empty array.

Throws:
IllegalArgumentException - if this format uses named arguments
Status:
Stable ICU 3.0.

parseToMap

public Map<String,Object> parseToMap(String source,
                                     ParsePosition pos)
[icu] Parses the string, returning the results in a Map. This is similar to the version that returns an array of Object. This supports both named and numbered arguments-- if numbered, the keys in the map are the corresponding ASCII-decimal-digit strings (e.g. "0", "1", "2"...).

Parameters:
source - the text to parse
pos - the position at which to start parsing. on return, contains the result of the parse.
Returns:
a Map containing key/value pairs for each parsed argument.
Status:
Stable ICU 3.8.

parse

public Object[] parse(String source)
               throws ParseException
Parses text from the beginning of the given string to produce an object array. The method may not use the entire text of the given string.

See the parse(String, ParsePosition) method for more information on message parsing.

Parameters:
source - A String whose beginning should be parsed.
Returns:
An Object array parsed from the string.
Throws:
ParseException - if the beginning of the specified string cannot be parsed.
IllegalArgumentException - if this format uses named arguments
Status:
Stable ICU 3.0.

parseToMap

public Map<String,Object> parseToMap(String source)
                              throws ParseException
[icu] Parses text from the beginning of the given string to produce a map from argument to values. The method may not use the entire text of the given string.

See the parse(String, ParsePosition) method for more information on message parsing.

Parameters:
source - A String whose beginning should be parsed.
Returns:
A Map parsed from the string.
Throws:
ParseException - if the beginning of the specified string cannot be parsed.
See Also:
parseToMap(String, ParsePosition)
Status:
Stable ICU 3.8.

parseObject

public Object parseObject(String source,
                          ParsePosition pos)
Parses text from a string to produce an object array or Map.

The method attempts to parse text starting at the index given by pos. If parsing succeeds, then the index of pos is updated to the index after the last character used (parsing does not necessarily use all characters up to the end of the string), and the parsed object array is returned. The updated pos can be used to indicate the starting point for the next call to this method. If an error occurs, then the index of pos is not changed, the error index of pos is set to the index of the character where the error occurred, and null is returned.

See the parse(String, ParsePosition) method for more information on message parsing.

Specified by:
parseObject in class Format
Parameters:
source - A String, part of which should be parsed.
pos - A ParsePosition object with index and error index information as described above.
Returns:
An Object parsed from the string, either an array of Object, or a Map, depending on whether named arguments are used. This can be queried using usesNamedArguments. In case of error, returns null.
Throws:
NullPointerException - if pos is null.
Status:
Stable ICU 3.0.

clone

public Object clone()

Overrides:
clone in class Format
Status:
Stable ICU 3.0.

equals

public boolean equals(Object obj)

Overrides:
equals in class Object
Status:
Stable ICU 3.0.

hashCode

public int hashCode()

Overrides:
hashCode in class Object
Status:
Stable ICU 3.0.

autoQuoteApostrophe

public static String autoQuoteApostrophe(String pattern)
[icu] Converts an 'apostrophe-friendly' pattern into a standard pattern. This is obsolete for ICU 4.8 and higher MessageFormat pattern strings. It can still be useful together with the JDK MessageFormat.

See the class description for more about apostrophes and quoting, and differences between ICU and the JDK.

The JDK MessageFormat and ICU 4.6 and earlier MessageFormat treat all ASCII apostrophes as quotes, which is problematic in some languages, e.g. French, where apostrophe is commonly used. This utility assumes that only an unpaired apostrophe immediately before a brace is a true quote. Other unpaired apostrophes are paired, and the resulting standard pattern string is returned.

Note: It is not guaranteed that the returned pattern is indeed a valid pattern. The only effect is to convert between patterns having different quoting semantics.

Note: This method only works on top-level messageText, not messageText nested inside a complexArg.

Parameters:
pattern - the 'apostrophe-friendly' pattern to convert
Returns:
the standard equivalent of the original pattern
Status:
Stable ICU 3.4.


Copyright (c) 2012 IBM Corporation and others.