CharacterIterator Class Reference

Abstract class that defines an API for iteration on text objects. More...

#include <chariter.h>

Inheritance diagram for CharacterIterator:
ForwardCharacterIterator UObject UMemory UCharCharacterIterator StringCharacterIterator

Public Types

enum  EOrigin { kStart, kCurrent, kEnd }
 

Origin enumeration for the move() and move32() functions.

More...

Public Member Functions

virtual CharacterIteratorclone (void) const =0
 Returns a pointer to a new CharacterIterator of the same concrete class as this one, and referring to the same character in the same text-storage object as this one.
virtual UChar first (void)=0
 Sets the iterator to refer to the first code unit in its iteration range, and returns that code unit.
virtual UChar firstPostInc (void)
 Sets the iterator to refer to the first code unit in its iteration range, returns that code unit, and moves the position to the second code unit.
virtual UChar32 first32 (void)=0
 Sets the iterator to refer to the first code point in its iteration range, and returns that code unit, This can be used to begin an iteration with next32().
virtual UChar32 first32PostInc (void)
 Sets the iterator to refer to the first code point in its iteration range, returns that code point, and moves the position to the second code point.
int32_t setToStart ()
 Sets the iterator to refer to the first code unit or code point in its iteration range.
virtual UChar last (void)=0
 Sets the iterator to refer to the last code unit in its iteration range, and returns that code unit.
virtual UChar32 last32 (void)=0
 Sets the iterator to refer to the last code point in its iteration range, and returns that code unit.
int32_t setToEnd ()
 Sets the iterator to the end of its iteration range, just behind the last code unit or code point.
virtual UChar setIndex (int32_t position)=0
 Sets the iterator to refer to the "position"-th code unit in the text-storage object the iterator refers to, and returns that code unit.
virtual UChar32 setIndex32 (int32_t position)=0
 Sets the iterator to refer to the beginning of the code point that contains the "position"-th code unit in the text-storage object the iterator refers to, and returns that code point.
virtual UChar current (void) const =0
 Returns the code unit the iterator currently refers to.
virtual UChar32 current32 (void) const =0
 Returns the code point the iterator currently refers to.
virtual UChar next (void)=0
 Advances to the next code unit in the iteration range (toward endIndex()), and returns that code unit.
virtual UChar32 next32 (void)=0
 Advances to the next code point in the iteration range (toward endIndex()), and returns that code point.
virtual UChar previous (void)=0
 Advances to the previous code unit in the iteration range (toward startIndex()), and returns that code unit.
virtual UChar32 previous32 (void)=0
 Advances to the previous code point in the iteration range (toward startIndex()), and returns that code point.
virtual UBool hasPrevious ()=0
 Returns FALSE if there are no more code units or code points before the current position in the iteration range.
int32_t startIndex (void) const
 Returns the numeric index in the underlying text-storage object of the character returned by first().
int32_t endIndex (void) const
 Returns the numeric index in the underlying text-storage object of the position immediately BEYOND the character returned by last().
int32_t getIndex (void) const
 Returns the numeric index in the underlying text-storage object of the character the iterator currently refers to (i.e., the character returned by current()).
int32_t getLength () const
 Returns the length of the entire text in the underlying text-storage object.
virtual int32_t move (int32_t delta, EOrigin origin)=0
 Moves the current position relative to the start or end of the iteration range, or relative to the current position itself.
virtual int32_t move32 (int32_t delta, EOrigin origin)=0
 Moves the current position relative to the start or end of the iteration range, or relative to the current position itself.
virtual void getText (UnicodeString &result)=0
 Copies the text under iteration into the UnicodeString referred to by "result".

Protected Member Functions

 CharacterIterator ()
 Empty constructor.
 CharacterIterator (int32_t length)
 Constructor, just setting the length field in this base class.
 CharacterIterator (int32_t length, int32_t position)
 Constructor, just setting the length and position fields in this base class.
 CharacterIterator (int32_t length, int32_t textBegin, int32_t textEnd, int32_t position)
 Constructor, just setting the length, start, end, and position fields in this base class.
 CharacterIterator (const CharacterIterator &that)
 Copy constructor.
CharacterIteratoroperator= (const CharacterIterator &that)
 Assignment operator.

Protected Attributes

int32_t textLength
 Base class text length field.
int32_t pos
 Base class field for the current position.
int32_t begin
 Base class field for the start of the iteration range.
int32_t end
 Base class field for the end of the iteration range.

Detailed Description

Abstract class that defines an API for iteration on text objects.

This is an interface for forward and backward iteration and random access into a text object.

The API provides backward compatibility to the Java and older ICU CharacterIterator classes but extends them significantly:

  1. CharacterIterator is now a subclass of ForwardCharacterIterator.
  2. While the old API functions provided forward iteration with "pre-increment" semantics, the new one also provides functions with "post-increment" semantics. They are more efficient and should be the preferred iterator functions for new implementations. The backward iteration always had "pre-decrement" semantics, which are efficient.
  3. Just like ForwardCharacterIterator, it provides access to both code units and code points. Code point access versions are available for the old and the new iteration semantics.
  4. There are new functions for setting and moving the current position without returning a character, for efficiency.

See ForwardCharacterIterator for examples for using the new forward iteration functions. For backward iteration, there is also a hasPrevious() function that can be used analogously to hasNext(). The old functions work as before and are shown below.

Examples for some of the new functions:

Forward iteration with hasNext():

 void forward1(CharacterIterator &it) {
     UChar32 c;
     for(it.setToStart(); it.hasNext();) {
         c=it.next32PostInc();
         // use c
     }
  }

Forward iteration more similar to loops with the old forward iteration, showing a way to convert simple for() loops:

 void forward2(CharacterIterator &it) {
     UChar c;
     for(c=it.firstPostInc(); c!=CharacterIterator::DONE; c=it.nextPostInc()) {
          // use c
      }
 }

Backward iteration with setToEnd() and hasPrevious():

  void backward1(CharacterIterator &it) {
      UChar32 c;
      for(it.setToEnd(); it.hasPrevious();) {
         c=it.previous32();
          // use c
      }
  }

Backward iteration with a more traditional for() loop:

 void backward2(CharacterIterator &it) {
     UChar c;
     for(c=it.last(); c!=CharacterIterator::DONE; c=it.previous()) {
         // use c
      }
  }

Example for random access:

  void random(CharacterIterator &it) {
      // set to the third code point from the beginning
      it.move32(3, CharacterIterator::kStart);
      // get a code point from here without moving the position
      UChar32 c=it.current32();
      // get the position
      int32_t pos=it.getIndex();
      // get the previous code unit
      UChar u=it.previous();
      // move back one more code unit
      it.move(-1, CharacterIterator::kCurrent);
      // set the position back to where it was
      // and read the same code point c and move beyond it
      it.setIndex(pos);
      if(c!=it.next32PostInc()) {
          exit(1); // CharacterIterator inconsistent
      }
  }

Examples, especially for the old API:

Function processing characters, in this example simple output

 
  void processChar( UChar c )
  {
      cout << " " << c;
  }

Traverse the text from start to finish

 
 
  void traverseForward(CharacterIterator& iter)
  {
      for(UChar c = iter.first(); c != CharacterIterator.DONE; c = iter.next()) {
          processChar(c);
      }
  }

Traverse the text backwards, from end to start

 
  void traverseBackward(CharacterIterator& iter)
  {
      for(UChar c = iter.last(); c != CharacterIterator.DONE; c = iter.previous()) {
          processChar(c);
      }
  }

Traverse both forward and backward from a given position in the text. Calls to notBoundary() in this example represents some additional stopping criteria.

 
 void traverseOut(CharacterIterator& iter, int32_t pos)
 {
      UChar c;
      for (c = iter.setIndex(pos);
      c != CharacterIterator.DONE && (Unicode::isLetter(c) || Unicode::isDigit(c));
          c = iter.next()) {}
      int32_t end = iter.getIndex();
      for (c = iter.setIndex(pos);
          c != CharacterIterator.DONE && (Unicode::isLetter(c) || Unicode::isDigit(c));
          c = iter.previous()) {}
      int32_t start = iter.getIndex() + 1;
  
      cout << "start: " << start << " end: " << end << endl;
      for (c = iter.setIndex(start); iter.getIndex() < end; c = iter.next() ) {
          processChar(c);
     }
  }

Creating a StringCharacterIterator and calling the test functions

 
  void CharacterIterator_Example( void )
   {
       cout << endl << "===== CharacterIterator_Example: =====" << endl;
       UnicodeString text("Ein kleiner Satz.");
       StringCharacterIterator iterator(text);
       cout << "----- traverseForward: -----------" << endl;
       traverseForward( iterator );
       cout << endl << endl << "----- traverseBackward: ----------" << endl;
       traverseBackward( iterator );
       cout << endl << endl << "----- traverseOut: ---------------" << endl;
       traverseOut( iterator, 7 );
       cout << endl << endl << "-----" << endl;
   }
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Definition at line 356 of file chariter.h.


Member Enumeration Documentation

Origin enumeration for the move() and move32() functions.

Stable:
ICU 2.0

Definition at line 362 of file chariter.h.


Constructor & Destructor Documentation

CharacterIterator::CharacterIterator (  )  [protected]

Empty constructor.

Stable:
ICU 2.0
CharacterIterator::CharacterIterator ( int32_t  length  )  [protected]

Constructor, just setting the length field in this base class.

Stable:
ICU 2.0
CharacterIterator::CharacterIterator ( int32_t  length,
int32_t  position 
) [protected]

Constructor, just setting the length and position fields in this base class.

Stable:
ICU 2.0
CharacterIterator::CharacterIterator ( int32_t  length,
int32_t  textBegin,
int32_t  textEnd,
int32_t  position 
) [protected]

Constructor, just setting the length, start, end, and position fields in this base class.

Stable:
ICU 2.0
CharacterIterator::CharacterIterator ( const CharacterIterator that  )  [protected]

Copy constructor.

Parameters:
that The CharacterIterator to be copied
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Member Function Documentation

virtual CharacterIterator* CharacterIterator::clone ( void   )  const [pure virtual]

Returns a pointer to a new CharacterIterator of the same concrete class as this one, and referring to the same character in the same text-storage object as this one.

The caller is responsible for deleting the new clone.

Returns:
a pointer to a new CharacterIterator
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Implemented in StringCharacterIterator, and UCharCharacterIterator.

virtual UChar CharacterIterator::current ( void   )  const [pure virtual]

Returns the code unit the iterator currently refers to.

Returns:
the current code unit.
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Implemented in UCharCharacterIterator.

virtual UChar32 CharacterIterator::current32 ( void   )  const [pure virtual]

Returns the code point the iterator currently refers to.

Returns:
the current code point.
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Implemented in UCharCharacterIterator.

int32_t CharacterIterator::endIndex ( void   )  const [inline]

Returns the numeric index in the underlying text-storage object of the position immediately BEYOND the character returned by last().

Returns:
the numeric index in the underlying text-storage object of the position immediately BEYOND the character returned by last().
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Definition at line 701 of file chariter.h.

References end.

virtual UChar CharacterIterator::first ( void   )  [pure virtual]

Sets the iterator to refer to the first code unit in its iteration range, and returns that code unit.

This can be used to begin an iteration with next().

Returns:
the first code unit in its iteration range.
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Implemented in UCharCharacterIterator.

virtual UChar32 CharacterIterator::first32 ( void   )  [pure virtual]

Sets the iterator to refer to the first code point in its iteration range, and returns that code unit, This can be used to begin an iteration with next32().

Note that an iteration with next32PostInc(), beginning with, e.g., setToStart() or firstPostInc(), is more efficient.

Returns:
the first code point in its iteration range.
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Implemented in UCharCharacterIterator.

virtual UChar32 CharacterIterator::first32PostInc ( void   )  [virtual]

Sets the iterator to refer to the first code point in its iteration range, returns that code point, and moves the position to the second code point.

This is an alternative to setToStart() for forward iteration with next32PostInc().

Returns:
the first code point in its iteration range.
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Reimplemented in UCharCharacterIterator.

virtual UChar CharacterIterator::firstPostInc ( void   )  [virtual]

Sets the iterator to refer to the first code unit in its iteration range, returns that code unit, and moves the position to the second code unit.

This is an alternative to setToStart() for forward iteration with nextPostInc().

Returns:
the first code unit in its iteration range.
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Reimplemented in UCharCharacterIterator.

int32_t CharacterIterator::getIndex ( void   )  const [inline]

Returns the numeric index in the underlying text-storage object of the character the iterator currently refers to (i.e., the character returned by current()).

Returns:
the numberic index in the text-storage object of the character the iterator currently refers to
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Definition at line 706 of file chariter.h.

References pos.

int32_t CharacterIterator::getLength ( void   )  const [inline]

Returns the length of the entire text in the underlying text-storage object.

Returns:
the length of the entire text in the text-storage object
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Definition at line 711 of file chariter.h.

References textLength.

virtual void CharacterIterator::getText ( UnicodeString result  )  [pure virtual]

Copies the text under iteration into the UnicodeString referred to by "result".

Parameters:
result Receives a copy of the text under iteration.
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Implemented in StringCharacterIterator, and UCharCharacterIterator.

virtual UBool CharacterIterator::hasPrevious (  )  [pure virtual]

Returns FALSE if there are no more code units or code points before the current position in the iteration range.

This is used with previous() or previous32() in backward iteration.

Returns:
FALSE if there are no more code units or code points before the current position in the iteration range, return TRUE otherwise.
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Implemented in UCharCharacterIterator.

virtual UChar CharacterIterator::last ( void   )  [pure virtual]

Sets the iterator to refer to the last code unit in its iteration range, and returns that code unit.

This can be used to begin an iteration with previous().

Returns:
the last code unit.
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Implemented in UCharCharacterIterator.

virtual UChar32 CharacterIterator::last32 ( void   )  [pure virtual]

Sets the iterator to refer to the last code point in its iteration range, and returns that code unit.

This can be used to begin an iteration with previous32().

Returns:
the last code point.
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Implemented in UCharCharacterIterator.

virtual int32_t CharacterIterator::move ( int32_t  delta,
EOrigin  origin 
) [pure virtual]

Moves the current position relative to the start or end of the iteration range, or relative to the current position itself.

The movement is expressed in numbers of code units forward or backward by specifying a positive or negative delta.

Parameters:
delta the position relative to origin. A positive delta means forward; a negative delta means backward.
origin Origin enumeration {kStart, kCurrent, kEnd}
Returns:
the new position
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Implemented in UCharCharacterIterator.

Referenced by setToEnd(), and setToStart().

virtual int32_t CharacterIterator::move32 ( int32_t  delta,
EOrigin  origin 
) [pure virtual]

Moves the current position relative to the start or end of the iteration range, or relative to the current position itself.

The movement is expressed in numbers of code points forward or backward by specifying a positive or negative delta.

Parameters:
delta the position relative to origin. A positive delta means forward; a negative delta means backward.
origin Origin enumeration {kStart, kCurrent, kEnd}
Returns:
the new position
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Implemented in UCharCharacterIterator.

virtual UChar CharacterIterator::next ( void   )  [pure virtual]

Advances to the next code unit in the iteration range (toward endIndex()), and returns that code unit.

If there are no more code units to return, returns DONE.

Returns:
the next code unit.
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Implemented in UCharCharacterIterator.

virtual UChar32 CharacterIterator::next32 ( void   )  [pure virtual]

Advances to the next code point in the iteration range (toward endIndex()), and returns that code point.

If there are no more code points to return, returns DONE. Note that iteration with "pre-increment" semantics is less efficient than iteration with "post-increment" semantics that is provided by next32PostInc().

Returns:
the next code point.
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Implemented in UCharCharacterIterator.

CharacterIterator& CharacterIterator::operator= ( const CharacterIterator that  )  [protected]

Assignment operator.

Sets this CharacterIterator to have the same behavior, as the one passed in.

Parameters:
that The CharacterIterator passed in.
Returns:
the newly set CharacterIterator.
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Reimplemented from ForwardCharacterIterator.

Reimplemented in StringCharacterIterator, and UCharCharacterIterator.

virtual UChar CharacterIterator::previous ( void   )  [pure virtual]

Advances to the previous code unit in the iteration range (toward startIndex()), and returns that code unit.

If there are no more code units to return, returns DONE.

Returns:
the previous code unit.
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Implemented in UCharCharacterIterator.

virtual UChar32 CharacterIterator::previous32 ( void   )  [pure virtual]

Advances to the previous code point in the iteration range (toward startIndex()), and returns that code point.

If there are no more code points to return, returns DONE.

Returns:
the previous code point.
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Implemented in UCharCharacterIterator.

virtual UChar CharacterIterator::setIndex ( int32_t  position  )  [pure virtual]

Sets the iterator to refer to the "position"-th code unit in the text-storage object the iterator refers to, and returns that code unit.

Parameters:
position the "position"-th code unit in the text-storage object
Returns:
the "position"-th code unit.
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Implemented in UCharCharacterIterator.

virtual UChar32 CharacterIterator::setIndex32 ( int32_t  position  )  [pure virtual]

Sets the iterator to refer to the beginning of the code point that contains the "position"-th code unit in the text-storage object the iterator refers to, and returns that code point.

The current position is adjusted to the beginning of the code point (its first code unit).

Parameters:
position the "position"-th code unit in the text-storage object
Returns:
the "position"-th code point.
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Implemented in UCharCharacterIterator.

int32_t CharacterIterator::setToEnd (  )  [inline]

Sets the iterator to the end of its iteration range, just behind the last code unit or code point.

This can be used to begin a backward iteration with previous() or previous32().

Returns:
the end position of the iteration range
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Definition at line 691 of file chariter.h.

References move().

int32_t CharacterIterator::setToStart (  )  [inline]

Sets the iterator to refer to the first code unit or code point in its iteration range.

This can be used to begin a forward iteration with nextPostInc() or next32PostInc().

Returns:
the start position of the iteration range
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Definition at line 686 of file chariter.h.

References move().

int32_t CharacterIterator::startIndex ( void   )  const [inline]

Returns the numeric index in the underlying text-storage object of the character returned by first().

Since it's possible to create an iterator that iterates across only part of a text-storage object, this number isn't necessarily 0.

Returns:
the numeric index in the underlying text-storage object of the character returned by first().
Stable:
ICU 2.0

Definition at line 696 of file chariter.h.

References begin.


Field Documentation

int32_t CharacterIterator::begin [protected]

Base class field for the start of the iteration range.

Stable:
ICU 2.0

Definition at line 671 of file chariter.h.

Referenced by startIndex().

int32_t CharacterIterator::end [protected]

Base class field for the end of the iteration range.

Stable:
ICU 2.0

Definition at line 677 of file chariter.h.

Referenced by endIndex().

int32_t CharacterIterator::pos [protected]

Base class field for the current position.

Stable:
ICU 2.0

Definition at line 665 of file chariter.h.

Referenced by getIndex().

int32_t CharacterIterator::textLength [protected]

Base class text length field.

Necessary this for correct getText() and hashCode().

Stable:
ICU 2.0

Definition at line 659 of file chariter.h.

Referenced by getLength().


The documentation for this class was generated from the following file:
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